Past Events

Friday 26 November, 18.00

Lecture and Panel: Imagining a Free Greece

Hellenic Institute, Royal Holloway, University of London

Online

Imagining a Free Greece: British, Cypriot and Russian Engagements

Lord Guilford (1766-1827)

Taking as a point of departure the famous Ionian Academy established by the great Philhellene Frederick North, 5th Earl of Guilford (1766-1827), being the first University established on Greek soil (1824-1827), this event, led by Dr Paris Papamichos Chronakis, will explore the history of intellectual movements that led to the liberation of the Greeks, including the contribution of the Cypriots and the Greek communities in Britain and Russia. 

Professor Sakis Gekas (York University, Toronto) will deliver the main lecture on Lord Guilford and British cultural politics in the Ionian Islands followed by a panel discussion with Professor Lucien Frary (Rider University, New Jersey) on philhellenism and the Greek diaspora in the Russian Empire, and Dr Chrysovalantis Kyriacou (Bank of Cyprus Cultural Foundation / Royal Holloway, University of London) on Cyprus and Greek Cypriots in the Greek War of Independence. 


Wednesday 24 November

Book Launch: Music, Language and Identity

Athens Conservatoire, Greece

Book Launch: Music, Language and Identity in Greece

Book launch of the volume Music, Language and Identity in Greece: Defining an Art Music in the 19th and 20th centuries (Routledge, Publications of the Centre for Hellenic Studies, King’s College London), and its accompanying CD ‘HARMONIA’, as part of the symposium ‘Art Music in Modern Greece’, celebrating 150 years of the Athens Conservatoire.

The event will also include talks about the opera Andronica by Alexandros Greck, which will be produced at the Olympia Theatre on 28 November 2021, for the first time after its last known presentation in Alexandria 110 years ago, as part of Protovoulia 1821-2021 and with the generous support of the J. F. Costopoulos Foundation.

Speakers: Nikos Tsouchlos (the Athens Conservatoire), Gonda Van Steen (King’s College London), John Bennet (British School at Athens), Dimitrios P. Mantzounis (the J. F. Costopoulos Foundation), Polina Tambakaki (King’s College London), John Kittmer (the Anglo-Hellenic League), Evanthis Hatzivassiliou (the University of Athens and the Hellenic Parliament Foundation), Haris Xanthoudakis (the Athens Conservatoire), Stella Kourmpana (the Athens Conservatoire) and Nikos Athineos (the Athens Conservatoire).

The symposium will close with a 20-minute presentation of excerpts from the opera Andronica performed by Vassia Alati (soprano) and Nikos Athineos (piano).

Admission is free with admission tickets. For details, please contact the Athens Conservatoire: tntoufexiadou@athensconservatoire.gr


Thursday 18 – Sunday 21 November

Conference: A.G. Leventis Conference in Hellenic Studies

University of Edinburgh and Online

Conference: Twelfth A.G. Leventis Conference in Hellenic Studies at the University of Edinburgh

The Greek Revolution of 1821: Contexts, Scottish Connections, the Classical Tradition.

Dugald Stewart Monument, Edinburgh

View the programme

Accompanied by an exhibition in the University Library: ‘Edina/Athena: The Greek Revolution and the Athens of the North, 1821–2021’.

The revolution of the Greek-speaking, Orthodox Christian subjects of the Ottoman empire in 1821 was accompanied by declarations of national independence inspired by the recent revolutions in the Americas and France. The Greek Revolution was the first of its kind to be successful on European soil, and led to international recognition for Greece as an independent, sovereign state in 1830. In this way, the story of Greece as a modern nation-state begins, and also a new chapter in the history of our continent, as the era of multi-national empires slowly gave way, over the next two centuries, to an era dominated by the self-determination of nation-states.

This conference, held under the auspices of the A. G. Leventis Visiting Professorship in Greek, and forming part of Edinburgh’s biennial series of international conferences on Hellenic studies, will bring together scholars from many countries and a range of academic disciplines to re-assess the nature and significance of the Greek Revolution from the perspective of the twenty-first century and of a city and a nation that geographically lie at the opposite end of Europe from Greece, and have often been compared; namely Edinburgh (the ‘Athens of the North’) and Scotland.

In keeping with the broad remit of the Leventis series of conferences at Edinburgh, speakers will assess the role of the ancient and Byzantine Greek past in the causes, ideology, and reception of the 1821 revolution. The conference will also highlight Scottish connections to Greece, both ancient and modern, and specifically the Greek past as an inspiration for the Scottish Enlightenment and in the architectural planning of Edinburgh’s ‘New Town’.

Confirmed speakers include Thomas Ahnert (Edinburgh), Iain Gordon Brown (NLS), Richard Clogg (Oxford), Tolga Esmer (CEU Vienna), Ioannis Evrigenis (Tufts), Lucien Frary (Rider University), Alasdair Grant (Edinburgh & Hamburg), Constanze Güthenke (Oxford), Yannis Hamilakis (Brown), Paschalis Kitromilides (Athens), Vassiliki Kolocotroni (Glasgow), Sanja Perović (KCL), Alexia Petsalis-Diomidis (St Andrews), Christine Philliou (Berkeley), Gonda Van Steen (KCL), Matteo Zaccarini (Bologna/Edinburgh) and Simon Zenios (UCLA).

The conference will be held in a hybrid format, with a small live audience in Edinburgh and a larger audience online. To ask about in-person attendance, please email the Research Centres and Knowledge Exchange Events Administrator, Ms Elaine Philip.

Conference website here.

Contacts: Prof. Niels Gaul and Prof. Roderick Beaton

Prof. Roderick Beaton, A.G. Leventis Visiting Professor in Greek

Roderick Beaton grew up in Edinburgh and studied English Literature at Peterhouse, Cambridge, before turning to Modern Greek as the subject of his doctorate, also at Cambridge – and at the British School at Athens. After a three-year postdoctoral fellowship at the University of Birmingham he embarked on a long career at King’s College London, first as Lecturer in Modern Greek Language and Literature (1981-88), later as Koraes Professor of Modern Greek and Byzantine History, Language and Literature (1988-2018), and since then as Emeritus. From 2012 to 2018 he also served as Director of the Centre for Hellenic Studies at King’s.

    Roderick is the author of many books and articles about aspects of the Greek-speaking world from the twelfth century to the present day, including An Introduction to Modern Greek Literature (1994); George Seferis: Waiting for the Angel. A Biography (2003); Byron’s War: Romantic Rebellion, Greek Revolution (2013); and Greece: Biography of a Modern Nation (2019, now a Penguin paperback). All four of these books won the prestigious Runciman Award for best book on the Hellenic world. His latest book, an overview of Greek history from the Bronze Age to the 200th anniversary of the Greek Revolution in 2021, is expected to be published in autumn 2021 with the title The Greeks: A Global History.

    He is a Fellow of the British Academy (FBA, 2013), a Fellow of King’s College (FKC, 2018), Commander of the Order of Honour of the Hellenic Republic (2019) and, from September to December 2021, has been appointed A.G. Leventis Visiting Professor in Greek at the University of Edinburgh.


Saturday 6 November, 11.00

Cavafy Walking Tour

Meeting Point: Queensborough Terrace, Bayswater

Historic Walking Tour of Cavafy’s London

Follow in the footsteps of Cavafy on this London walking tour led by Dr Victoria Solomonidis-Hunter FKC (UCL).

Tour highlights include the Cavafy’s childhood home, the George Cavafy family home, the Aghia Sofia, the former site of the Hellenic College, and the studio of Cavafy’s cousin, Maria Zambaco Cassavetti.

More information available here.


Thursday 4 November, 17.30-18.30

Panel: Classical/Contemporary

Online

Classical/Contemporary: In Conversation with Francesco Vezzoli

How might classical art speak to contemporary concerns? In what ways can present-day perspectives illuminate the Greek and Roman past? And how can new dialogues between artists, art historians and classical archaeologists engage new – more diverse and inclusive – audiences in the twenty-first century?

This online event, organised in partnership with the Fondazione Brescia Musei, addresses these and other themes, in conversation with renowned Italian artist, Francesco Vezzoli.

Speakers: Francesco Vezzoli, Dr Patch Crowley (Cantor Center, Stanford University), Prof Verity Platt (Cornell University), Dr Letizia Ragaglia (Kunstmuseum Liechtenstein), Prof Salvatore Settis (Scuola Normale Superiore), Prof Michael Squire (King’s College London)

Our discussion takes its cue from Vezzoli’s current exhibition, Paloscenici archeologici (‘Archaeological Stages’) at the UNESCO archaeological park at Brescia (June 2021 – January 2022). By bringing together an international panel of art historians, archaeologists and curators, the event will also explore the show’s larger artistic, conceptual and curatorial context: our aim is not only to initiate new dialogues between archaeology and contemporary art, but also to explore the past, present and future of classical traditions. Participants will be invited to put their questions directly to both Francesco Vezzoli and the panel. This online international event forms part of the ‘Modern Classicisms’ project at King’s, and is generously supported by the Jamie Rumble Memorial Fund.


Friday 29 October

2021 Leventis Exhibition

University of Edinburgh Library, George Square, Edinburgh

ONGOING: 2021 Leventis Exhibition: ‘Edina/Athena: The Greek Revolution and the Athens of the North, 1821–2021’

This major exhibition accompanies the tenure of the 12th Leventis Professor and will be on display from 29 October 2021 until 29 January 2022.

The display explores Scottish–Greek connections in the early nineteenth century and plays on the synchronicity of the Greek Revolution and the emergence of the discourse of Edinburgh as the ‘Modern Athens’ and ‘Athens of the North’.


Thursday 28 October, 16.00-17.30

Panel: The Geopolitics of Greece

Hellenic Observatory, LSE

Online

The Geopolitics of Greece: Continuities and Discontinuities

Geopolitics has always been invoked as an explanation for Greek foreign policy and its position in the European and broader international order. This event will examine to what extent the intersection of geography and politics accounts for Greece’s external relations and to what extent it provides a useful link in understanding Greece’s international position in 1821 and the 21st Century.

Speakers: Konstantina Botsiou (Associate Professor and Director of KEDIS, University of the Peloponnese), Erik Goldstein (Professor of International Relations and History, Boston University), George Prevelakis (Professor Emeritus, Sorbonne University; Permanent Representative of Greece at the OECD)

Chair: Spyros Economides (Associate Professor in International Relations and European Politics, LSE)

Register for the Zoom link here.

For more information, see the event website.

Registrations will open on 7 October.

Contact the Hellenic Observatory.


Friday 22 October, 18.00-19.30

The Greek War of Independence in the Visual Arts and Literature

Online

The Greek War of Independence in the Visual Arts and Literature

Episode from the Greek War of Independence (1856) by Eugène Delacroix

This seminar will be a discussion of the representation of independence through art and literature.

More details and Zoom link available here.

Moderator and Chair: Liana Giannakopoulou (Cambridge)

Speaker abstracts and bios:

Aris Sarafianos (University of Ioannina) on ‘Cultural Diplomacy, Local Nationalism and the Birth of a Philhellenic Picture: Thomas Phillips’s “Albanian Portrait of Byron”’

Lord Byron’s first emblematic portraits – Portrait of a Nobleman in the Dress of an Albanian (1814) and Portrait of a Nobleman (1814) and their many copies – remain largely under-researched. These portraits have been painted by the Royal Academy painter Thomas Phillips, whose important yet unusual work in the Romantic portraiture of men of science, medical men, and celebrity writers and poets is largely overlooked, too. The proposed talk aims to place Byron’s portraits in their immediate historical context, highlighting and enriching the disparate set of competing motives, expectations and practices that defined the history of European Philhellenism and, in particular, the Byronic case. It studies the specific conditions of the portraits’ production, public exhibition and critical reception, their visual choices and perpetual reinterpretation by engaged viewers. The following themes encapsulate some of the significant forces present in these portraits that proved decisive for the spread of the attraction of Greece among the contemporary elite: the quest of celebrity status in the cultural market of the time; sensationalism, disguise, notoriety, and the pursuit of perpetual sensory stimulation in the construction of new models of dynamic virility and artistic identity; exotic fantasies and orientalist hybridizations.

    In a happy coincidence, ten years after the appearance of Byron’s portraits, there also appeared an extraordinary yet largely unknown literary portrait of the poet written by the most brilliant essayist and critic of the first half of the nineteenth century, William Hazlitt. In addition to being Byron’s associate, this well-known member of the Cockney School of literature had already been one of the first critics to review Phillips’ portraits of Byron exhibited at the Royal Academy exhibition of 1814. Hazlitt’s bottom-up literary portrait unpicks in a most biting way all the social, political and aesthetic forces that marked Byron’s ‘preposterous liberalism’ and related version of philhellenism. Ultimately, Hazlitt’s essay spots all the conflicting oscillations characteristic of Byron’s philhellenic model: passages across aristocratic forms of distinction and the love of people, class privilege and social equality, politeness and wildness, haughtiness and self-contempt, ennui and freedom that throw a new critical-historical light upon Phillips’ portraits and the history of philhellenism, more broadly.

Dimitris Plantzos (National and Kapodistrian University of Athens) on ‘Public Statues, National Anniversaries, and the Winters of Our Discontent’

As a typical modern nation-state, Greece has to a great extent based its public imagery on the usual repertoire of bronze and marble effigies representing its founding fathers: late nineteenth- and twentieth-century politicians, some ancient Greeks, and a great number of ‘heroes’ associated with the War of Independence. Inspired by an ongoing effort by the municipality of Tripoli in the Peloponnese to revamp the town’s central square where a bronze statue of Theodoros Kolokotronis was erected in the 1930s, as well as several graffiti attacks against the twin effigies of the same historical figure in Athens and Nafplio in the years of the economic recession and the covid19 pandemic, this paper revisits questions of public space, cultural memory, national heterotopias, and Greek Archaeopolitics.

    

Dimitris Plantzos is Professor of Classical Archaeology at the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens. His academic interests include Greek art and archaeology, archaeological theory, and modern receptions of classical antiquity. His most recent books are The Art of Painting in Ancient Greece (Athens and Atlanta, GA 2018) and The Recent Future: Classical Antiquity as Biopolitical Apparatus (Athens 2016; in Greek). He is currently working on a book on Archaeopolitics, to be published by Sorbonne Université Presses (in French).

Contact: Liana Giannakopoulou (Senior Research Fellow, Faculty of MMLL and Centre for Greek Studies, University of Cambridge)


Wednesday 20 October

Panel: Rethinking 1821

UCL School of Slavonic and East European Studies

Register

Rethinking 1821: Greek Independence and its Transnational Contexts

A panel of new research on the events of 1821, with a particular emphasis on their transnational and Balkan dimensions. There will be three short papers of around 15-20 minutes, followed by a Q&A session. 

Opening Remarks: Wendy Bracewell (Professor of Southeast European History, UCL-SSEES)

Panelists: Viron Karidis (London), Alex Drace-Francis (University of Amsterdam), Elisavet Papalexopoulou (European University Institute)

For more information and to read abstracts, please see the event website.

Register here.

Contact: Dr. Alex Drace-Francis.


Wednesday 13 October

Niki Marangou Memorial Lecture

Temporary Exhibition Room, Leventis Gallery

Nicosia, Cyprus

Third Annual Niki Marangou Memorial Lecture

Prof Roderick Beaton: ‘Το ’21 και ο ευρωπαϊκός φιλελληνισμός’

Painting by Niki Marangou

Please note this lecture is in Greek.

Read the Abstract

Από τις πρώτες κιόλας μέρες της Επανάστασης, η έκκληση προς τα «πολιτισμένα έθνη της Ευρώπης» εμφανίζεται στις πρώτες προκηρύξεις των επαναστατών. Τόσο ο Αλέξανδρος Υψηλάντης στις παραδουνάβιες ηγεμονίες, όσο και ο Πετρόμπεης Μαυρομιχάλης στην Καλαμάτα, καλούν τους φιλελεύθερους και τους φιλάνθρωπους της Ευρώπης να υποστηρίξουν τον Αγώνα. Οι «φιλέλληνες», όπως αποκαλούνται αμέσως, κατεβαίνουν από όλα τα μέρη της ηπείρου, καθώς και από την μακρινή Αμερική. Πάνω από 1000 άτομα πήραν ενεργό μέρος ως εθελοντές στο πεδίο της μάχης. Άλλοι απογοητεύτηκαν και έφυγαν, άλλοι σκοτώθηκαν ή πέθαναν από αρρώστιες. Οι απώλειες ήταν τρομερές, και τραγικές – όπως γίνεται στην πασίγνωστη περίπτωση του Λόρδου Βύρωνα, ο οποίος πέθανε στο Μεσολόγγι τον Απρίλη του 1824. Είναι ζήτημα τι κατάφεραν οι άνθρωποι αυτοί, αν υπολογίσουμε μόνο το στρατιωτικό αποτέλεσμα της επέμβασής τους. Αλλά, μαζί με πολύ περισσότερους ομοϊδεάτες τους που έμειναν σπίτι αλλά που ενεργούσαν με πλάγιους τρόπους, όπως με χρηματοδοτήσεις, πληροφόρηση μέσα από τις εφημερίδες κλπ., οι φιλέλληνες ως σύνολο εξασφάλισαν την κινητοποίηση των κυβερνήσεων των Μεγάλων Δυνάμεων προς όφελος της Ελλάδας. Αν δεν ήταν οι εθελοντές που πήραν τα άρματα, και αν δεν ήταν οι προπαγανδιστικές ενέργειες των φιλελλήνων σε όλες, σχεδόν, τις χώρες της Ευρώπης, δεν θα γινόταν η ναυμαχία του Ναυαρίνου, ή το Πρωτόκολλο του Λονδίνου, που τελικά εξασφάλισε την πλήρη ανεξαρτησία του νεοσύστατου ελληνικού κράτους στις 3 Φεβρουαρίου 1830.

 

The year 2021 marks the bicentenary of the outbreak of the Greek Revolution, or War of Independence. As that anniversary year evolves, this talk takes a long view, beginning with the European settlement reached at the Congress of Vienna in 1814-15, known as the ‘Concert of Europe’, and continuing with the disappearance of multi-national empires and their replacement throughout the continent by the nation states that we are familiar with today. International recognition for Greece as a sovereign nation-state, sealed by the Protocol of London in February 1830, according to Professor Beaton’s analysis, represents a pivotal point in this continent-wide transition, and one that has been unjustly overlooked by historians. The talk will focus on those aspects of the Greek Revolution that explain how events in Greece in the 1820s contributed to this far-reaching change, whose consequences are still being played out today as the UK has left the European Union and its constituent nations contemplate separate futures for themselves.

Prof. Roderick Beaton, A.G. Leventis Visiting Professor in Greek

Ο Roderick Beaton γεννήθηκε και μεγάλωσε στο Εδιμβούργο της Σκωτίας. Σπούδασε Αγγλική Φιλολογία στο Peterhouse (Πανεπιστήμιο του Cambridge) και στη συνέχεια εκπόνησε διδακτορική διατριβή στο ίδιο πανεπιστήμιο με θέμα το ελληνικό δημοτικό τραγούδι. Από το 1988 ώς το 2018 ήταν καθηγητής στην Έδρα Κοραή Νεοελληνικής και Βυζαντινής Ιστορίας, Γλώσσας και Φιλολογίας στο King’s College London, και από το 2012 ώς το 2018 διευθυντής του Κέντρου Ελληνικού Σπουδών στο ίδιο πανεπίστημιο, όπου από το 2018 παραμένει ως ομότιμος καθηγητής. Ανάμεσα στα βιβλία του είναι: Εισαγωγή στη νεότερη ελληνική λογοτεχνία (1996)· Γιώργος Σεφέρης: περιμένοντας τον άγγελο (2003)· Ο πόλεμος του Μπάιρον: ρομαντική εξέγερση, Ελληνική Επανάσταση (2016) και Ελλάδα: Βιογραφία ενός σύγχρονου έθνους (2020). Το 2019 του επέδωσε ο Πρόεδρος της Ελληνικής Δημοκρατίας το παράσημο του Ταξιάρχη του Τάγματος της Τιμής, «για την εμβληματική συμβολή [του] στην έρευνα της Νεοελληνικής και Βυζαντινής Ιστορίας, Γλώσσας και Λογοτεχνίας». Εκλέχτηκε στη θέση A.G. Leventis Visiting Professor in Greek στο Πανεπιστήμιο του Εδιμβούργου για την περίοδο Σεπτέμβρη-Δεκέμβρη 2021. Το επόμενο βιβλίο του, The Greeks: A Global History προβλέπεται να κυκλοφορήσει το φθινόπωρο του 2021.

 

Roderick Beaton grew up in Edinburgh and studied English Literature at Peterhouse, Cambridge, before turning to Modern Greek as the subject of his doctorate, also at Cambridge – and at the British School at Athens. After a three-year postdoctoral fellowship at the University of Birmingham he embarked on a long career at King’s College London, first as Lecturer in Modern Greek Language and Literature (1981-88), later as Koraes Professor of Modern Greek and Byzantine History, Language and Literature (1988-2018), and since then as Emeritus. From 2012 to 2018 he also served as Director of the Centre for Hellenic Studies at King’s.

    Roderick is the author of many books and articles about aspects of the Greek-speaking world from the twelfth century to the present day, including An Introduction to Modern Greek Literature (1994); George Seferis: Waiting for the Angel. A Biography (2003); Byron’s War: Romantic Rebellion, Greek Revolution (2013); and Greece: Biography of a Modern Nation (2019, now a Penguin paperback). All four of these books won the prestigious Runciman Award for best book on the Hellenic world. His latest book, an overview of Greek history from the Bronze Age to the 200th anniversary of the Greek Revolution in 2021, is expected to be published in autumn 2021 with the title The Greeks: A Global History.

    He is a Fellow of the British Academy (FBA, 2013), a Fellow of King’s College (FKC, 2018), Commander of the Order of Honour of the Hellenic Republic (2019) and, from September to December 2021, has been appointed A.G. Leventis Visiting Professor in Greek at the University of Edinburgh.

Contact: marangouatkings@gmail.com or chs@kcl.ac.uk


Saturday 9 October, 19.00

Film Screening

Bush House (N) Auditorium, -1.01, KCL

Film Screening: Queens of Amathus

An award-winning documentary about the women of Cyprus and their journey to Birmingham in the aftermath of the 1974 Turkish invasion of the island. To be followed by a discussion with the producer and director, Panikos Panayiotou, led by Dr Marios Psaras, Cultural Counsellor, Cyprus High Commission.

Watch the trailer:

Venue: Bush House, 30 Aldwych, London, WC2B 4BG (Bush House (N) Auditorium -1.01 and Arcade Café and exhibition area). Please adhere to all necessary health precautions, as required on the King’s Strand campus.

Organised by the Cultural Section of the Cyprus High Commission, London, and the Centre for Hellenic Studies at King’s.


Thursday 24 June, 16.00-17.30

Panel: Re-Appraising Economic Legacies

Hellenic Observatory, LSE

The Greek War of Independence: Re-Appraising its Economic Legacies

René Puaux, Grèce: Terre Aimée des Dieux (1932): ‘An assemblage of European officers rushing to the aid of Greece in 1822’

How far may the economic problems of the modern Greek state be attributed to the nature of its origins? Its small, albeit enlarging, size; the lack of popular trust in public institutions and authority; the recourse to patrons and to ‘rent-seeking’; and, its own vulnerability to external powers: are these path-dependent features that overwhelm the scope for change?

This panel will discuss the inheritance of 1821 for the course of development taken by modern Greece and how it has structured options and choices. When, and how, has or might such historical determinism be overcome?

Speakers:

Maria Christina Chatziioannou, Director of the Institute of Historical Research of the National Hellenic Research Foundation

Andreas Kakridis, AssistantProfessor of Economic History, Ionian University

Stathis Kalyvas, Gladstone Professor of Government, All Souls College, University of Oxford 

Chair: Joan Roses, Professor in Economic History, LSE

Find out more

Contact the Hellenic Observatory


Thursday 17 June, 19.00

Relaunch of Runciman Award

Online

Register

Anglo-Hellenic League Runciman Award Ceremony

Read more about the event

Keynote speaker: Prof. Stathis Kalyvas, on the abiding relevance of the Greek Revolution of 1821.

Organised by the Anglo-Hellenic League, which administers the Runciman Award.

For more details, please see the event flyer. More information about the cultural events programme of The Anglo-Hellenic League is available here.

Contact: Dr John Kittmer, Chair of the Anglo-Hellenic League.

A recording of the event is available now on the AHL YouTube channel:


Friday 11 June, 18.00

Echoes of the Greek War of Independence on Stage

Online

Register

The Land of the Great, the Home of the Brave’: Echoes of the Greek War of Independence on Stage

Ali Pasha and Kira Vassiliki by Paul Emil Jacobs

An online presentation by Dr Maria Georgopoulou, Director of the Gennadius Library at the American School of Classical Studies in Athens. The talk focuses on two theatrical plays written by American playwrights Mordecai Noah and John Howard Payne, which were performed in New York and in London in 1822.

The webinar is part of the 1821 Commemorative Lecture Series: The Greek War of Independence Revisited, organised by the Hellenic Centre.

Full details

Dr Maria Georgopoulou’s presentation focuses on two theatrical plays written by American playwrights (Mordecai Noah and John Howard Payne) that were performed in New York and in London in 1822. The protagonist of both plays is Ali Pasha (c. 1740 – 1822), who contributed decisively, if unwittingly, to the struggle of the Greeks for their independence primarily because of the effect he had on Lord Byron. Written immediately after Ali Pasha’s demise in 1822, the plays were performed while the Greek Revolution was still in its early stages. The villain Ali Pasha and the beautiful Greek prisoner who tries to avoid his wrath and harassment in order to mingle with her beloved, offer the necessary elements of savagery, sensuality, exoticism and action for a successful melodrama. Both works transform Ali Pasha’s story to highlight themes to resonate with the intended audiences. Noah transposes Ali Pasha’s action from the city of Ioannina to Athens while the finale of the show is a fantastic allegorical scene of triumph where famous ancient Greeks and modern revolutionaries, including several from the Americas, join the chorus. In the end of Payne’s play, Ali Pasha sets himself on fire in the citadel of Ioannina so that he and his riches do not fall into the hands of the Sultan. The analysis of the characters as well as of the geographical and historical references in the two works, explores the resonance of the events of ’21 in distant America, the perception of exotic stereotypes, and the impact of the struggle for independence on American and English audiences.

Please register in advance of this event here.


Saturday 29 May, 11.00

Historic Walking Tour

Meeting Point: Outside Bayswater Tube Station

Duration: Approx. 1.5 hours

Historic Walking Tour of Greece-Related Sites and Sights in London

Tour of the Bayswater area and St Sophia Church, London residence of Seferis, etc. Contacts: Konstantinos Trimmis and Gonda Van Steen.

Limited to the first 30 people who pre-register (email chs@kcl.ac.uk) and who agree to wear their mask unless medically exempt.

Outside St Sophia Cathedral

Friday 28 May, 10.00 (London), 11.00 (Vienna), 12.00 (Athens), 19.00 (Sydney)

The Greek War of Independence in Greek Cinema

Online

Zoom Link

Join the Zoom here (Passcode: 173573)

The Greek War of Independence in Greek Cinema: Themes, forms, representations

This event will be preceded by the announcement of the 2021 Niki Marangou Dissertation Prize.

A roundtable chaired by Dr Lydia Papadimitriou, in conversation with Professors Vrasidas Karalis (Sydney) and Maria Stassinopoulou (Vienna).

Greek cinema has dealt only sporadically with the Revolution of 1821. While emblematic events and leading figures from the period made their first screen appearance in the late 1920s, Revolution-inspired fiction films were made intermittently, mainly in the late 1950s/60s and early 1970s. The roundtable will explore key themes and recurrent forms in the fictionalised representation of the Greek War of Independence in Greek cinema, such as depictions of heroism, the role of women, the regional geographies of Greece, stardom and public memory.

Jenny Karezi as Manto Mavrogenous (Still from Manto Mavrogenous, dir. Kostas Karagiannis, 1971)
Dr Lydia Papadimitriou

Lydia Papadimitriou is Reader in Film Studies at Liverpool John Moores University. She has published extensively on both historical and contemporary aspects of Greek cinema, including genre, gender, documentary and film industry-related topics (distribution, co-productions, film festivals). She is the author of The Greek Film Musical (2006), co-editor of Greek Cinema: Texts, Forms and Identities (2011), and the principal editor of the Journal of Greek Media and Culture. She has recently co-edited Contemporary Balkan Cinema: Transnational Exchanges and Global Circuits and a special issue of the JGMC on Greek Screen Industries (2020).

Prof Vrasidas Karalis

Vrasidas Karalis holds the Chair of Sir Nicholas Laurantos in Modern Greek and Byzantine Studies at the University of Sydney. He has translated Patrick White’s Voss and The Vivisector. He is the editor of Modern Greek Studies (Australian and New Zealand). His main publications in English include: A History of Greek Cinema (Continuum 2012), Realism in Greek Cinema (I.B. Tauris, 2017), Recollections of Mr Manoly Lascaris (Brandl & Sclesinger, 2007), The Demons of Athens (Brandl & Schlesinger, 2013), Reflections on Presence (re.Press, 2016). He has also edited the collections Cornelios Castoriadis and the Project of Radical Democracy (2013), Martin Heidegger and the Aesthetics of Being (2008), and Power, Justice and Judgement in Hannah Arendt (2012).

Prof Maria Stassinopoulou

Maria A. Stassinopoulou is Professor of Modern Greek Studies at the University of Vienna and President of the Austrian Society of Modern Greek Studies. She has published widely on Greek social and cultural history from the 18th to the 20th century. She is the author of Weltgeschichte im Denken eines griechischen Aufklärers (1992) and co-editor of, among others, Across the Danube: Southeastern Europeans and Their Traveling Identities (2017). Her habilitation thesis Reality Bites (2001) discusses Greek film in the context of Cold War Greece. In her articles on cinema she focusses on the historical context of Greek film production and the narratives of historicity in Greek cinema in the second half of the 20th century.

Organised by the Society for Modern Greek Studies. Contacts: Liana Giannakopoulou (Senior Research Fellow, Faculty of MMLL and Centre for Greek Studies, University of Cambridge) and Lydia Papadimitriou (Reader in Film Studies, Liverpool John Moores University).

Zoom Link

Join the Zoom here (Passcode: 173573)


Thursday 22 April, 18.00

Panel: The Greek Revolution through the Eyes of ‘Others’

Online

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The Greek Revolution through the Eyes of its ‘Others’

The Greek War of Independence (1821-1830) was a national revolution that fractured existing patterns of multi-ethnic coexistence and generated instead strong and enduring images as much of the national self as of the new nation’s ‘Others’. This panel takes a closer look at the understudied ways in which some of Greece’s most prominent ‘Others’ have responded to the war and its legacy over the course of the past two centuries. Moving away from Euro- and Graeco-centric perspectives, the panel’s focus will be on early nineteenth-century Albanian warlords, interwar Sephardi Jews, and mid-twentieth-century Turkish historians and their engagement with the Greek Revolution in the context of their own repositioning in the changing Ottoman and post-Ottoman worlds of Southeastern Europe and the Eastern Mediterranean.

Speakers:

Dr Antonis Hadjikiriakou (Panteion University, Athens), ‘Winning at Land, Losing at Sea: The First Turkish History of the Greek Revolution’

The Turkish perception of the Greek Revolution is an understudied subject. Admittedly, there are good reasons for this. The broader pictures reveal a general lack of interest in the subject roughly until the 1990s, when historiographical production gradually developed both quantitatively as well as qualitatively. Secondly, and despite these changes, there is little divergence between the approaches and explanatory schemes proposed during this first century of the Turkish Republic. These perceptions largely revolved around the uncritical reproduction of the official discourse found in Ottoman documents and historical narratives which, analytically, remained engulfed in an ethnocentric epistemological framework. Not necessarily escaping these limitations, one contribution stands out as a notable exception. This was Fevzi Kurtoğlu’s The Greek War of Independence and the Battle of Navarino, published in 1944. The book was the first monograph based on Ottoman sources to be published since 1858. More interestingly, it puts the maritime dimension of the Greek Revolution at centre stage. While this may not be surprising, given that Kurtoğlu was a navy officer who taught at the Naval Academy, a deeper investigation of the political and intellectual climate reveals a much richer context within which this history was produced. This paper situates this book within its broader historiographical framework, presents its key arguments, and discusses the significance of the author’s thalassocentric approach at a time when this was a faux pas in the Kemalist intellectual and military establishment.


Antonis Hadjikyriacou is Teaching Fellow in Ottoman and Turkish History at Panteion University, Athens and Affiliated Scholar at the Center for Spatial and Textual Analysis at Stanford University. He has held teaching and research positions at Princeton University, Boğaziçi University, SOAS, the Institute for Mediterranean Studies/Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas, and the University of Cyprus. He is editor of Islands of the Ottoman Empire (Princeton, 2018) and co-editor of Chasing the Ottoman Early Modern, a special issue of the Journal of the Ottoman and Turkish Studies Association 7:1 (2020, with Virginia Aksan and Boğaç Ergene). He has published widely in English, Turkish, and Greek on the social, economic, environmental, and spatial history of Ottoman Cyprus and the Mediterranean world. He has two books forthcoming in Greek: Terrestrial Island: Space, Environment, and Economy in Cyprus during the Age of Revolutions (Thessaloniki: Psifides, 2021) and Winning at Land, Losing at Sea: The First Turkish History of the Greek Revolution (Iraklion, Crete University Press, 2022).


Dr Sukru Ilicak (Research Centre for the Humanities, Athens), ‘The Greek War of Independence as an Albanian Experience’

The Sublime Porte’s crumbling prospects for recruitment during the Greek War of Independence obliged the Ottoman state to resort to the ‘violence market’, whose most important suppliers were first and foremost Albanian magnates-cum-warlords. However, the Sublime Porte made a serious miscalculation by contracting out the quelling of the Greek uprising to an ethnic group which was not external to the issue. Albanian warlords and mercenaries were at the very heart of the matter and were eager to pursue their survival instincts. They followed their own agendas to the utmost of their capabilities and remained quite unresponsive to the Sublime Porte’s demands. In my talk, I will explore what had happened to the Ottoman military and the central role played by Albanians in the Greek War of Independence.


H. Şükrü Ilıcak was born and raised in Ankara. On the trail of rebetiko music, he developed a serious interest in Greece when he was in college. He decided to pursue an academic career and specialize in the so-called Ottoman ‘Three Nations’, namely the Greeks, Armenians and Jews. He continued his studies in Turkey, Greece, and the US. He received his PhD degree from Harvard University in 2011, with a dissertation entitled ‘A Radical Rethinking of Empire: Ottoman State and Society during the Greek War of Independence (1821-1826)’. His dissertation investigates the Greek War of Independence as an Ottoman experience, exploring in particular how Sultan Mahmud II (1808-1839) and the central state elite tried to make sense of and reacted to the rapidly changing world around them. Currently he is a postdoctoral researcher at the Institute for Mediterranean Studies, Crete.


Dr Paris Papamichos Chronakis (Lecturer in Modern Greek History, Royal Holloway, University of London), ‘From ‘Other’ to ‘Brother’: Greek Jews and the Greek Revolution in the Interwar Period’

The Greek War of Independence marked the near-end of the Jewish presence in the revolutionary lands rendering independent Greece a state without Jews. The memory of widespread massacres would nevertheless persist as surviving Jews from Roumeli and the Peloponnese fled to Ottoman lands settling among their co-religionists in all major port-cities of the Eastern Mediterranean including Thessaloniki. Decades later, the Balkan Wars of 1912-1913 brought many of these communities within an expanded Greek state and presented their members with the pressing task of recrafting their identity both as Jews and as Greeks. Thus, during the interwar period, Jews—Zionists and assimilationists alike—imaginatively engaged with the legacy and language of the Greek Revolution in a multitude of often contradictory ways by participating in its public celebrations, drawing inspiration from its slogans, and deriving optimism from its success. Such engagements, however, posed questions to Greek Christians themselves regarding the boundaries of the ‘Greek’ nation and the place of Jews within it. Rather than a means of asserting Greek nationalism and homogenizing minorities, the ‘Jewish Greek Revolution’ proved how complex the transition from Jewish ‘other’ to Jewish ‘brother’ could be for Greek Christians and Jews alike.


Paris Papamichos Chronakis is Lecturer in Modern Greek History at Royal Holloway University of London, where he teaches and researches on the history and memory of the modern Mediterranean. His work explores questions of transition from empire to nation-state, bringing together the interrelated histories of Jews, Muslims and Christians from the late Ottoman Empire to the Holocaust. In recent years, his research and publications have expanded to post-imperial urban identities, Balkan War refugees, Salonica in World War I, Greek interwar Zionism and anti-Zionism, the Holocaust of Sephardi Jewry, and digital Holocaust Studies. He was a member of the scientific committee developing the ‘Database of Greek Jewish Holocaust Survivors’ Testimonies’, and he currently serves on the editorial board of the Bulletin de Correspondance Hellénique Moderne et Contemporain.


Respondent:

Dr Konstantina Zanou (Columbia University)

Konstantina Zanou (PhD, Università di Pisa and ‘European Doctorate’ from the École Normale Supérieure, Paris) is Assistant Professor of Italian at Columbia University, NYC, specializing in Mediterranean Studies. She is a historian of the long nineteenth century in the Mediterranean. Her research focuses on issues of intellectual and literary history, the history of archaeology, nationalism, and biography, with a special emphasis on Italy and Greece. She is also a student of modern diasporas and of the trajectories and ideas of people on the move. Her book Transnational Patriotism in the Mediterranean, 1800-1850: Stammering the Nation (Oxford University Press, 2018) won the 2019 Edmund Keeley Book Prize of the Modern Greek Studies Association, the 2019 Marraro Prize in Italian History, and the 2020 Mediterranean Seminar Best Book Prize. With Maurizio Isabella, Konstantina has co-edited the volume Mediterranean Diasporas: Politics and Ideas in the Long Nineteenth Century (Bloomsbury, 2016) and has published extensively on expatriate intellectuals and national consciousness in the post-Venetian Adriatic. Her new book-project, tentatively titled Fragmented Lives, Reassembled Statues: The Cesnola Brothers and the Birth of Archaeology explores the lives of Piedmontese brothers Luigi and Alessandro Palma di Cesnola (1832-1904 and 1840-1914), to tell a story about the emergence of archaeology at the intersection of nationalism, imperialism, war, adventurism, and financial speculation, and to explore the elusive frontier between the fictive and the authentic in its foundation as a scientific discipline.


Contact: Dr Paris Papamichos Chronakis

Register here


Thursday 11 March, 18.00

Annual Hellenic Lecture

Royal Holloway, University of London

Online

Nineteenth Annual Hellenic Lecture

Prof Gonda Van Steen: ‘The Greek Revolution of 1821 and Its Multiple Legacies’

Read the lecture here: [PDF] [Word]

Since the outbreak of the Greek War of Independence in 1821, the Greek people have celebrated three major anniversaries: the 50th, 100th, and 150th anniversary date of the inception of this revolutionary war that led to sovereign statehood after nearly four centuries of Ottoman rule. These three jubilees, each with their own legacies, have come to represent three different ways of celebrating Greek statehood that have, nonetheless, much in common. They posited a linear progression from Greek antiquity through postclassical, Byzantine, and post-Byzantine (Ottoman) times. This lecture will explore in what ways the celebrations and re-enactments, with their commemorative events and symbolic images, acquired a prescriptive character, which advanced their aim to educate youth in state-promoted nationalism, and to what extent the present 200th anniversary celebrations differ from the three aforementioned ones.

The Lecture will take place online via Zoom and will be hosted by Professor Ken Badcock, Senior Vice-Principal (Academic Strategy, Partnerships and Resources) and Chairman of the Hellenic Institute Steering Group at Royal Holloway, University of London

For further information please contact Dr Achilleas Hadjikyriacou at the Hellenic Institute, Royal Holloway, University of London


Monday 22 February, 18.00-20.00

Panel: 1821: The Migration of Revolutionary Ideas (Pt 2)

Online Event

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1821: The Migration of Revolutionary Ideas (Pt 2)

Painting by Ioannis Moralis

The second in a two-part series (see above). Co-hosted with the Hellenic Society.

London Speakers

– Georgios Varouxakis (Queen Mary)

– Athena Leoussi (University of Reading)

– Sanja Perovic (King’s College London)

Prof. Roderick Beaton, A.G. Leventis Visiting Professor in Greek

Roderick Beaton grew up in Edinburgh and studied English Literature at Peterhouse, Cambridge, before turning to Modern Greek as the subject of his doctorate, also at Cambridge – and at the British School at Athens. After a three-year postdoctoral fellowship at the University of Birmingham he embarked on a long career at King’s College London, first as Lecturer in Modern Greek Language and Literature (1981-88), later as Koraes Professor of Modern Greek and Byzantine History, Language and Literature (1988-2018), and since then as Emeritus. From 2012 to 2018 he also served as Director of the Centre for Hellenic Studies at King’s.

    Roderick is the author of many books and articles about aspects of the Greek-speaking world from the twelfth century to the present day, including An Introduction to Modern Greek Literature (1994); George Seferis: Waiting for the Angel. A Biography (2003); Byron’s War: Romantic Rebellion, Greek Revolution (2013); and Greece: Biography of a Modern Nation (2019, now a Penguin paperback). All four of these books won the prestigious Runciman Award for best book on the Hellenic world. His latest book, an overview of Greek history from the Bronze Age to the 200th anniversary of the Greek Revolution in 2021, is expected to be published in autumn 2021 with the title The Greeks: A Global History.

    He is a Fellow of the British Academy (FBA, 2013), a Fellow of King’s College (FKC, 2018), Commander of the Order of Honour of the Hellenic Republic (2019) and, from September to December 2021, has been appointed A.G. Leventis Visiting Professor in Greek at the University of Edinburgh.

Contacts: Centre for Hellenic Studies, KCL, the Hellenic Society and the British School at Athens

Event Listings: CHS and BSA. Register through the CHS or Hellenic Society.


Monday 15 February, 17.00-19.00 (UK)/19.00-21.00 (Greece)

Panel: 1821: The Migration of Revolutionary Ideas (Pt 1)

British School at Athens

1821: The Migration of Revolutionary Ideas (Pt 1)

Two Panel Discussions chaired by Roderick Beaton, Emeritus Koraes Professor of Modern Greek and Byzantine History, Language and Literature, King’s College London, co-organised with the British School at Athens.

Ideas about making a revolution – ideas that are in themselves revolutionary: these two back-to-back panel discussions, one in Athens, the other in London, will revolve around both concepts, as ways of understanding the outbreak of revolution by Orthodox Christian, Greek-speaking subjects of the Ottoman empire in the spring of 1821, that would lead to the creation of Greece as a modern nation-state in 1830. Speakers will focus on the transmission, or ‘migration’, of such ideas across the European continent in the wake of 1789 Revolution in France and their impact in creating the climate in which a Greek revolution became possible in 1821.

Athens Speakers

– Antonia (Ada) Dialla (Athens School of Fine Arts)

– Efi Gazi (University of the Peloponnese)

– Kostas Tampakis (National Hellenic Research Foundation)

Prof. Roderick Beaton, A.G. Leventis Visiting Professor in Greek

Roderick Beaton grew up in Edinburgh and studied English Literature at Peterhouse, Cambridge, before turning to Modern Greek as the subject of his doctorate, also at Cambridge – and at the British School at Athens. After a three-year postdoctoral fellowship at the University of Birmingham he embarked on a long career at King’s College London, first as Lecturer in Modern Greek Language and Literature (1981-88), later as Koraes Professor of Modern Greek and Byzantine History, Language and Literature (1988-2018), and since then as Emeritus. From 2012 to 2018 he also served as Director of the Centre for Hellenic Studies at King’s.

    Roderick is the author of many books and articles about aspects of the Greek-speaking world from the twelfth century to the present day, including An Introduction to Modern Greek Literature (1994); George Seferis: Waiting for the Angel. A Biography (2003); Byron’s War: Romantic Rebellion, Greek Revolution (2013); and Greece: Biography of a Modern Nation (2019, now a Penguin paperback). All four of these books won the prestigious Runciman Award for best book on the Hellenic world. His latest book, an overview of Greek history from the Bronze Age to the 200th anniversary of the Greek Revolution in 2021, is expected to be published in autumn 2021 with the title The Greeks: A Global History.

    He is a Fellow of the British Academy (FBA, 2013), a Fellow of King’s College (FKC, 2018), Commander of the Order of Honour of the Hellenic Republic (2019) and, from September to December 2021, has been appointed A.G. Leventis Visiting Professor in Greek at the University of Edinburgh.

Contacts: Centre for Hellenic Studies, KCL and the British School at Athens

Event Listings: CHS and BSA


Thursday 4 February, 18.00-19.30

Runciman Lecture

Online Event

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Thirtieth Annual Runciman Lecture

Prof David Ricks: ‘The Shot Heard round the World: The Greek Revolution in Poetry’

Introduction: Prof Gonda Van Steen

Vote of Thanks: Dr Dionysis Kapsalis

Like the shot fired at Concord, Massachusetts, in 1775, the Greek Revolution was heard around the world, and many poets, Byron and Hugo among them, fired off their own poetry in response. This lecture will turn to Greek poetic responses to ’21 – and not just at the time, but as the noise of old battles has echoed through subsequent decades of Greek experience up to the present day. The focus will be on tensions between the pen and the sword, or rather the pen and the gun, over the years since 1821: the best Greek poets have faced such tensions memorably, and in doing so have made a distinctive contribution to the world’s poetry.

David Ricks is Professor Emeritus of Modern Greek and Comparative Literature, King’s College London, and a Fellow of the College. He studied classics and philosophy at Oxford before coming to King’s to write a doctoral thesis, on what would today be called classical reception, under the supervision of then Koraes Professor Roderick Beaton. The two worked in harness at King’s from 1989 to 2018, supervising 39 doctoral students between them in the fields of modern Greek literature and culture, no few of them now established in the republic of letters. David Ricks co-founded the CHS journal Dialogos (1994-2001) and served for many years on the board of the journal Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies, first edited from King’s by Donald Nicol; since 2020, he has been its editor, with Ingela Nilsson (Uppsala). He has published on many facets of poetry in Greek, from Digenes Akrites and Erotokritos in earlier periods to a wide range of poets from the last two centuries. These include such major figures as Solomos and Kalvos from the Revolutionary period, Cavafy and Sikelianos in the twentieth century, and Nasos Vayenas and Michalis Ganas today.

The vote of thanks will be given by Dr Dionysis Kapsalis. Born in Athens in 1952, Dr Kapsalis studied Classics and English Literature at Georgetown University, Washington D.C. (1970-1974). He pursued postgraduate work at King’s College London, in the Department of Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies (1981-1984). Since 1999, he has been Director of the Cultural Foundation of the National Bank of Greece. He has published poems, essays, and various translations of poetry. He has translated Shakespeare, Samuel Beckett and others for the Greek stage. He holds an honorary Doctorate from the University of Thessaloniki (2015), and he has been awarded the Greek State Prize for best literary translation for Hamlet (2015) and the Grand Prize for Letters (2017).

The Runciman Lectures are generously sponsored by the late Nicholas and Matti Egon and the Egon family.

Please register in advance via Eventbrite.


Thursday 28 January, 16.00-17.30 (UK)/18.00-19.30 (Greece)

Panel: Power and Impunity

Online Event

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Power and Impunity: What Donald Trump and Boris Didn’t Learn from the Ancient Greeks

A podcast of this event has been made available online here.

Are we living in a world marked by a new impunity of power? Political leaders discard established norms and taboos that have guided the behaviour of their predecessors and, in doing so, they win popular support from new areas of society, including the disengaged and excluded.  Across the world, in domestic politics, rhetoric is seemingly preferred over truth; ‘fake news’ over traditional media; and emotion over expertise. How did we get here? Our notions of the good society, of the responsibility that comes with power, and, of course, democracy and its discourse, stem from ancient and classical Greece. Our deepest sense of Western values, embedded in education curricula across our societies, emanates from classical Athens. Is it no longer of use or value? Are we now judging utility and cost differently? If so, how and why are our leaders safe in doing so?

Speakers:

Paul Cartledge (brief statement), A.G. Leventis Senior Research Fellow, Clare College,  Emeritus A.G. Leventis Professor of Greek Culture, University of Cambridge

Mike Cox, Emeritus Professor of International Relations, LSE; Director of LSE IDEAS

Simon Goldhill, Professor of Greek at the University of Cambridge and Foreign Secretary of the British Academy

Johanna Hanink, Associate Professor of Classics at Brown University

Chair:

Paul Kelly, Professor of Political Philosophy, Department of Government, LSE

Contact the Hellenic Observatory. 

Registration available on the event website.


Still Available

21 in 21 Celebratory Kick-Off Event

Online Event

Concert dedicated to Greece: Sir Simon Rattle (London Symphony Orchestra) conducting Leonidas Kavakos, violin:

Berg Violin Concerto
Schubert Symphony No 9, ‘The Great’

In collaboration with the National Bank of Greece and Initiative 1821-2021. For more information see www.protovoulia21.gr

Still available for free on demand here, but login required. ‘ERT’, the Greek National Radio-Television, will transmit the concert in a global broadcast on Saturday, January 30 at 16.30 (UK)/18.30 (Greece).

Click here to hear Sir Simon Rattle introduce the event and direct the Greek National Anthem.

See Tim Ashley’s review in The Guardian, 22 January 2021: ‘A touch of revolutionary sweetness from Kavakos’.

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